What are electric vehicles? Pros and Cons of electric vehicles


The world is moving from vehicles with internal combustion engines to electric vehicles, The reason is increasing pollution, and countries are making their emission standards even stricter. Similarly, internal combustion engines may not be able to beat these emission standards in the future.

 Such situations lead the world to increase the use of electric vehicles in the future. Therefore, automobile giants are now looking for ways to overcome the limitations of electric vehicles.

The electric vehicle is not a new concept, but the limitations of the electric vehicle have increased the use of internal combustion engine vehicles. The main challenge was the battery and the lack of rechargeable batteries.

The introduction of lead-acid batteries was thought to bring about a change, but by then people had to travel long distances, and roads began to spread far and wide.
Long distances were not practical for electric vehicles. Such conditions lead to the growth of vehicles using internal combustion engines.

But now the automobile world is trying to switch back to electric vehicles, let's take a look at the pros and cons of electric vehicles.

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What are the major components of electric vehicles?

There are 3 components in an electric vehicle.


1. Battery

An important component of electric vehicles is the battery they use, which requires a continual rechargeable battery. Currently, a lithium-ion battery is used for this.

The lithium-ion battery uses in mobile phones and laptops, you may have noticed that it gets hot when used for a while. The situation here is similar, so a cooling system is needed to reduce the heat generated in the battery pack.


2. Controller

As the word implies it is a controlling system.
For example, drive the wheel in proportion to pressing the accelerator pedal.


3. Electric motor

The motor used in it is another important component like the battery. There are 4 types of motors used in an electric vehicle.


1. AC Induction motor

These motors, which work on the ac supply, are used in cars and some bikes. An inverter is required here as it works on the ac supply.

Eg: Tesla Model S, tesla model X


2. Brushless DC motor

Used on two-wheelers and three-wheelers.


3. Permanent magnet synchronous motor 

Used in cars, electric buses, and bikes.

Eg: Hyundai Kona, Nissan leaf, Chevrolet bolt


4. Permanent magnet switched reluctance motor

It also works on ac supply but is more efficient than an ac induction motor.
Eg: Tesla model 3


Electric vehicle working

If you check the driveway of a vehicle working with an internal combustion engine, The energy generated by the engine travels through the clutch to the gearbox and from there to the wheel via differential.

But in an electric vehicle, the energy from the electric motor goes to a single-speed transmission (single-speed gearbox) and from there to the wheels via the differential.

If it is a front-wheel-drive vehicle, the motor will be on the front and it will drive the front wheel. If it is a rear-wheel-drive vehicle, the motor will be at the rear and it will drive the rear wheel.


Advantages of electric vehicle

  • No pollution.
  • No exhaust system required.
  • No need to check smoke.
  • Less weight.
  • Minimal maintenance compared to an ic engine.
  • The vibration will be very low, It has no reciprocating motion as in the ic engine so the vibration is very low.
  • The energy production is uniform, so it will be a smooth riding experience.
  • No need for a multispeed gearbox, It produces maximum torque and power at very low RPM.
  • No reverse gear system required.
  • Regenerative braking saves energy, which means that when you step off the accelerator pedal, the motor acts as a generator, which increases the vehicle's efficiency.
  • The running cost is low compared to an IC engine-powered vehicle.

Disadvantages of electric vehicle

  • High initial cost, An electric vehicle is more expensive than an ic engine-powered vehicle in the same range.
  • Range is low, which means mileage is low.
  • Charging time is a problem, it takes a long time to charge the battery.
  • Pollution, Although there is no pollution on roads, the batteries used in it pollute nature during the manufacturing process.

There are three stages to consider when evaluating how much a vehicle pollutes nature. The first is in the manufacturing stage, the second at the road and the third during disposal. Considering the above cases, fossil fuel vehicles are more likely to pollute nature than electric vehicles.
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